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道德经双译第42章

2016-08-08 10:07:06 来源:海峡道教网—福建省道教协会 浏览:305查看评论

文_东方  清辉
本章前半部分(自开头至“冲气以为和”)讲“道”化生万物,万物皆含有阴阳。后半部分(“人之所恶”至结束)讲人们应当如何立身处世。老子认为其最根本的原则就是要谦下、守柔,不可盛气凌人、强横凶暴。

道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物。“道”(处静止状态的混沌一气)发生运动而成为“一”(处运动状态的混沌一气),由这个“一”(也就是处於运动状态的混沌一气)而分化为阴阳二气,阴阳二气相互作用而形成和气,由和气而化生出万物。万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和。万物都包含着阴、阳两个相反的方面,阴阳二气相互作用而达到平衡的和谐状态。
人之所恶,唯孤﹑寡﹑不穀,而王公以为称。人们所讨厌的就是“孤”、“寡”、“不穀”这些词汇,而王公却用来作为自己的称谓。故物或损之而益,或益之而损。原来,有的事物损害它反而会得到利益,有的事物利益它反而会遭受损害。人之所教,我亦教之。人家教导我的(话),我也用来教导人。强梁者不得其死,吾将以为教父。强横凶暴的人不得好死,我将把它作为施教的根本。

Chapter 42
Introduction
The first half of this chapter (starting with the first sentence up to “and through their blending and mutual interaction they achieve harmony”) discusses the principles on how Dao begets all things and all things comprise Yin and Yang. The second half discusses the ways of conducting oneself in society. Lao Tzu considers the basic principle of conducting oneself in society is to be humble, remain meek and mild, and keep from being overambitious and obstinate.

Text
When Dao transformed into an active state, it begot the One (Primeval Qi);
The One differentiated into the Two (Yin Qi and Yang Qi);
The Two interacted and formed the Three (Harmonious Qi);
The Three gave birth to all things in the world.
All things comprise Yin and Yang,
And through their blending and mutual interaction they achieve harmony.
Words like “the lonely,” “the virtueless” and “the worthless” are hated by people;
Yet rulers and kings take these as their names.
So that is it! Some things benefit from being impaired;
Some things are impaired from receiving benefit.
I repeat what I have been taught:
“The overambitious and the obstinate will not achieve their final goal.”
And I will take this as the root of my teaching. 


作者简介
东方    道名周髙德,又名东航道人,为中国道教学院副教务长,在中国道教学院主讲道德经。
清辉    英文翻译,道名邱圆行,为北京白云观道士,在观內负责外事接待。

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